EA3 artifact I-3: Technical Standards Profile The Technology Standards Profile is a listing of business services and associated technologies that are accepted by the enterprise as being a primary or secondary standard. Further detail can be … Read more
Geographic information systems (GIS) are widespread at the federal, state and local levels. Data sharing is important because the ultimate power of a GIS is its ability to graphically present layers of data from multiple unrelated disciplines to create new information that allows people to answer questions. GIS have traditionally been built on standalone, stove-piped systems that present considerable difficulties to enterprise architects for several reasons. Although there are standard exchange formats for individual data types, there is a lack of federally-mandated standards for overall GIS data sets. This paper will discuss the efforts and associated challenges at federal, state and local levels to develop and implement GIS enterprise architecture frameworks, standards and enterprise architectures in order to better manage geospatial data. It presents the U.S. Census Bureau as an example of how the federal government is pursuing data sharing efforts with local government agencies, and provides examples of state and local government organizations that are implementing GIS into their enterprise architectures. It also discusses the impact of web technologies on the GIS industry and the differing opinions of the GIS industry on these technologies.
This article examines how Enterprise Architecture (EA) can provide the planning, documentation, and standards context for the implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems. This article also serves to establish a foundation for further research and discussion on the relationship between EA and ERP systems. ERP systems implementations can include the simultaneous or sequential introduction of new or upgraded applications software in a number of functional areas across an enterprise. EA integrates strategic, business, and technology planning across the enterprise, as well as providing standards and configuration management capabilities that support the ongoing transition from current to future architectures. In that EA documents and links an enterprise’s strategic goals, business processes, and technology solutions, ERP applications are part of EA. The authors argue that the selection and implementation of ERP applications should therefore be based on the strategic priorities, business requirements, and technology standards that the EA documents. EA can help to lower the risk of ERP implementation failure by providing a clear view of current and future technology operating environments and ways in which the ERP application can (or cannot) help to meet strategic goals and business requirements. Therefore, ERP implementations should be done in the context of EA during, and after the implementation to identify obstacles to success, the impact on existing processes and resources, and most importantly, to document lessons learned, which will promote the success of future initiatives.