Case

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Establishing Enterprise Architecture at WA Police

Western Australia Police provide law enforcement services to the largest geographical Police jurisdiction in the world. While some of the cultural and physical aspects of this jurisdiction are unique, the challenge of maximizing ICT investment and working effectively with partners to achieve the highest possible quality of service delivery is common to most government and private enterprises. This article shares the approach undertaken by WA Police to establish an Enterprise Architecture (EA) capability, covering three topics and key learnings of each: Establishing Enterprise Architecture – Discussion includes: a layered sourcing model that has been used to delineate service provider contracts; the structure and responsibilities of the team; establishment of governance structures for review and approval of EA deliverables; the adaptation of TOGAF to suit the needs of WA Police;
Connecting with Business Units – A description of the business of policing and the importance of this knowledge within the EA Office; includes the approach taken to communicate architecture directions; Connecting with Partners – Who are our partners and what is the approach taken to identify opportunities to share information more freely? This includes examples of previously successful business-led change and opportunities that have been identified but remain to be completed. The article is based on a presentation given to the inaugural Asia Pacific Government Enterprise Architecture Summit in Adelaide 2010, sponsored by the Government of South Australia.

Auditing the Implementation of Enterprise Architecture at the Federal Railroad Administration

After several years of work, implementing enterprise architecture in the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA – a part of the US Dept. of Transportation), in Fall 2009, attention was turned to the question: How to efficiently yet comprehensively audit their implementation of enterprise architecture, to identify strengths, weaknesses, and areas for future improvement? At that time, US agencies such as OMB and GAO had issued guides for reviewing (or evaluating, appraising, or auditing) government agency implementations of enterprise architecture, but these guides were not completely consistent with one another. A new, harmonizing version was being developed by GAO and was released in August 2010, containing the Enterprise Architecture Management Maturity Framework, Version 2.0 (EAMMF 2.0). This provides a management maturity framework which can permit an organization to achieve increasingly higher states of enterprise architecture management maturity. This article presents a pilot test project developed and conducted within the FRA, using the new EAMMF 2.0 elements and an audit methodology drawn loosely from the Software Engineering Institute’s Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI®) models and its companion Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement (SCAMPI) SM appraisal methods. The audit methodology proved to be an efficient way to assess FRA’s efforts in enterprise architecture. Findings also show that FRA’s implementation of enterprise architecture reflects very high enterprise architecture management maturity, suggesting that FRA has positioned itself well to support future initiatives such as the US development of high- speed rail and to continue to coordinate with its many constituencies including the railroad industry, other federal agencies, state and local government railroad agencies, and the public-at-large, to realize the benefits of enterprise architecture, all while dealing with rapid change, value, agility, standards, risk, and transformation.

Enterprise Architecture and Information Technology Acquisition Management

This case study presents an example of how one federal agency was able to utilize its enterprise architecture (EA) throughout an information technology (IT) investment‟s acquisition lifecycle; and describes how EA and IT acquisition management (ITAM) were integrated to positively influence and enhance the IT program‟s acquisition strategy. Once the agency determined the relationship between EA and ITAM, it was able to improve mission performance by utilizing relevant and mature data and relationships captured in the EA items. Because these EA items were provided to agency executives and stakeholders at specific times throughout the acquisition lifecycle, they made more informed decisions regarding resources and investments, thus resulting in more streamlined processes and more efficient buying power. EA delivered choices on actions and laid out the impacts so that actions could be weighed and measured. Success translated into dollars through eliminated purchases, redeployment, compliance to standards, tactical optimization for the strategic direction, and much more.

Application Portfolio Rationalization in Large International Enterprises

Today, most of large and international enterprises have already enterprise resource planning, business intelligence and customer relationship management systems in place. Some of the enterprises have integrated their other business applications to these systems. Increased complexity and spend of IT have emerged companies to rationalize and consolidate their application portfolio. Rationalization can mean shutting down applications, replacing them, or modifying their functionality and usage across the organization. Major challenges in rationalization are enterprise level decision making and cost of cleaning activities. This case study provides an example of setting up application portfolio management in a large international enterprise that has expanded through years by mergers and acquisitions. The results show key performance indicators and objectives for such portfolio management. The general portfolio theories are not always applicable as such in real life circumstances, but when applied they provide solid base for application portfolio re-thinking in an organization. CIOs, controllers and application responsible professionals can directly apply the results in their daily work.

Enterprise Architecture Evaluation Methods

The purpose of this case study is to outline and analyze the types of Enterprise Architecture (EA) assessment methodologies available to the United States Federal Government. This will consist of defining “assessment,” describing the two primary EA assessment methodologies that exist within the Federal Government to date, and analyzing the purpose and benefits of these assessment methodologies. These assessment methodologies are the Government Accountability Office (GAO) Enterprise Architecture Management Maturity Framework (EAMMF) and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) EA Assessment Framework. The GAO EAMMF is a more complex methodology based on the number of and relationship among the framework components. The scoring is based on identifying the maturity level of an organization’s EA program according to a scale of 1-5, including half-stages. The purpose of the EAMMF is benchmarking and comparing EA program evolution within an organization. Overall, the EAMMF is good to use when an EA is still in development to ensure the appropriate foundation and building blocks exist. In contrast, the OMB EAAF is a more straightforward framework with a more complex scoring algorithm that requires a score interpretation matrix. Overall, the EAAF framework is good to use for organizations that have established EA programs that are seeking improvement in the results from their Enterprise Architectures. Finally, this paper will conclude with a detailed example of applying the EAAF evaluation methodology to a specific agency. This example illustrated how meticulous and exacting performing an Enterprise Architecture assessment can be, but it also shared the benefits and type of information that an organization will learn from doing so. Hopefully the case study will provide readers with a better understanding of the available assessment methodologies in the public sector and which type would provide the feedback and assessment results suitable for their organization.

Geographic Information Systems in Public Sector Enterprise Architectures: Issues and Challenges

Geographic information systems (GIS) are widespread at the federal, state and local levels. Data sharing is important because the ultimate power of a GIS is its ability to graphically present layers of data from multiple unrelated disciplines to create new information that allows people to answer questions. GIS have traditionally been built on standalone, stove-piped systems that present considerable difficulties to enterprise architects for several reasons. Although there are standard exchange formats for individual data types, there is a lack of federally-mandated standards for overall GIS data sets. This paper will discuss the efforts and associated challenges at federal, state and local levels to develop and implement GIS enterprise architecture frameworks, standards and enterprise architectures in order to better manage geospatial data. It presents the U.S. Census Bureau as an example of how the federal government is pursuing data sharing efforts with local government agencies, and provides examples of state and local government organizations that are implementing GIS into their enterprise architectures. It also discusses the impact of web technologies on the GIS industry and the differing opinions of the GIS industry on these technologies.